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COVID-19 Misinformation Intervention Literature Review
The urgent need for improving research on how to respond to misleading health information

Health misinformation and its impact on people and communities remain an urgent issue across the world. To identify what works and what doesn’t when responding to misleading health information, our team of researchers at the Brown Information Futures Lab reviewed the evidence on COVID-19 misinformation interventions fielded during the pandemic. What we found surprised us! On this site, read more about our findings, our recommendations for funders, researchers and practitioners – and what’s next as we work collectively to generate more actionable evidence on effective responses to misleading health information.

Health Affairs Paper

Our academic paper on the COVID-19 Misinformation Interventions Literature Review is featured in the December issue of Health Affairs, and now available online in an early, open access release.

Key Findings

While we found some evidence supporting interventions such as accuracy prompts, debunks, and media literacy tips in mitigating either the spread of or belief in COVID-19 misinformation, our review revealed major challenges with the current approach to studying health misinformation more broadly.


We found 47 different outcome measures, and many different misinformation stimuli that participants were exposed to. The research community needs to urgently standardize outcome measures, and develop a typology of health misinformation that interventionists can employ, to make results comparable.

Read our recommendations for funders, researchers, and public health practitioners.

Public Health Experts should be included in the design and delivery of health misinformation interventions.
Standardize outcome measures and develop a misinformation typology to make evidence comparable and actionable.
Prioritize video misinformation due to its rising influence.

Learn how we identified the 50 papers included in our review and extracted 123 data fields from these studies, looking at factors including outcome measures, study timeline, recruitment platform, relevant intervention details, and intervention and misinformation media and modalities.

What’s Next

Moving the field forward requires collaboration. We are interviewing researchers (including authors of papers covered in the review), journalists and practitioners to understand what they need to better research, investigate and respond to misinformation. Explore a first readout from this ongoing, qualitative follow-up research project.

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